Pharmaceutical Crystallisation and Solid-State Consulting

PharmaCryst Consulting provides independent technical expertise and advice on all aspects of the development, scale up and troubleshooting of industrial crystallisation processes. In addition, preformulation issues with respect to candidate drug selection and characterisation (especially solid-state problems) can also be addressed. The Founder and Chief Scientific Officer of PharmaCryst Consulting is Dr Gerry Steele who has over 25 years' experience in the pharmaceutical arena with AstraZeneca. During his time with AZ, Dr Steele dealt with many early and late stage R&D projects as well as supporting AstraZeneca Operations ensuring the drug substance supply for two major AZ products remained uninterrupted. His wide knowledge of crystallisation and solid-state matters has been recognised by the Universities of Loughborough and Strathclyde where he is a visiting Professor contributing to teaching programmes in chemical engineering and pharmaceutical analysis and the research of the newly established EPSRC Centre for Continuous Manufacturing and Crystallisation.

In particular, PharmaCryst Consulting offers advice and expertise in the following areas

  • Batch and continuous crystallisation
  • Scale-up and troubleshooting
  • Solvent selection
  • Impurities and crystallisation
  • Process analytical technologies (Lasentec, UV/vis)
  • Difficult to crystallise compounds
  • Crystallisation and oiling out
  • Resolution by crystallisation
  • Salt and compound selection of Discovery compounds
  • Polymorphism and related solid-state issues, e.g. hydrates, solvates and amorphous
  • Preformulation studies
  • Solid-state analysis, e.g. thermal analysis, spectroscopic methods, X-ray etc.
  • Physical pharmacy and materials science related to dosage form design
  • Particle engineering
  • Data interpretation
  • Expert witness

Training courses on the above topics tailored to your particular needs can be delivered on-site.

  • Literature searching and reviews carried out.
  • Experimental crystallisation work, in conjunction with Professor Zoltan Nagy's Crystallisation group (Dept of Chemical Engineering, Loughborough University) can be performed.

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Curriculum Vitae - Gerry Steele

  • 2012
  • Director and Chief Scientific Officer, PharmaCryst Consulting Limited
  • 2011-
  • Visiting Professor, Department of Chemical Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, LE11 3TU United Kingdom
  • 2011-
  • Visiting Professor, Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde Glasgow
  • 2006-2011
  • Principal Scientist (Crystallisation and Solid-State), Process Engineering, Process R&D, AstraZeneca R&D Charnwood,Loughborough, Leicestershire LE11 5RH
  • 2002-2006
  • Associate Principal Scientist (Crystallisation and Solid-State), Process Engineering, Process R&D, AstraZeneca R&D Charnwood, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE11 5RH
  • 1999-2002
  • Senior Team Manager, Preformulation and Biopharmaceutics, Pharmaceutical and Analytical R&D, AstraZeneca R&D Charnwood,Loughborough, Leiceqstershire LE11 5RH
  • 1995-1999
  • Team Manager, Preformulation and Biopharmaceutics, Pharmaceutical and Analytical R&D, Astra Charnwood, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE11 5RH
  • 1992-1995
  • Team Manager, Preformulation, Pharmacy Department, Fisons, plc Pharmaceutical Divison, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE11 5RH
  • 1992
  • Scientific Manager for Characterisation, Inveresk Research International Ltd, Elphinstone Research Centre, Tranent, East Lothian
  • 1986-1992
  • Team Leader, Preformulation, Fisons, plc Pharmaceutical Division, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE11 5RH
  • 1985-1986
  • Scientist, Preformulation, Pharmacy Department, Fisons, plc Pharmaceutical Division, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE11 5RH
  • 1984-1985
  • Research Associate, Pharmacy Department, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow
  • 1980-1983
  • PhD, Department of Pharmacy, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow
  • 1979-1980
  • MSc Applied Colloid and Interface Science, Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow
  • 1978-1979
  • Graduate Trainee (Food Industry) CPC (UK) Ltd, Paisley
  • 1974-1978
  • BSc (Hons) Chemistry, Paisley College of Technology, Paisley


Publications

  • 2012
  • Saleemi A N, Steele G,, Pedge N I, Freeman A, Nagy Z K
    Enhancing Crystalline Properties of a Cardiovascular Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient using a Process Analytical Technology Based Crystallization Feedback Control Strategy
    Int J Pharm 430 56-64 (2012)
     
  • 2011
  • G. Steele
    Continuous Crystallisation of a Pharmaceutical Using an Oscillatory Baffled Crystalliser
    Invited lecture given at PharmSci2011, East Midlands Conference Centre, Nottingham 1st Sept. 2011
    Z.K. Nagy, M. Baker, N. Pedge and G. Steele
    Supersaturation and Direct Nucleation Control with in situ Seed Generation of an Industrial Pharmaceutical Crystallization process Using a Crystallization Process Informatics System (CRYPRINS)
    Proceedings  BIWIC 2011, 18th International Workshop on Industrial Crystallization, pp 101-106, TU Delft, The Netherlands, 7-9th Sept. 2011 (ISBN 978-946191-003-5)
    Z. K. Nagy, A. N. Saleemi, and G. Steele
    Quality-by-Design of the Crystal Size Distribution of An Anti-Arrhythmic Drug Using a Crystallisation Process Informatics System (CryPRINS)
    Presented by ZKN at the AIChemE 2011 annual meeting in Minneapolis, Nov. 2011
     
  • 2010
  • G. Steele, P. Morgan, Z. Huang, L. Griffiths, S. Gracin, S. Black, F. Muller, C. Macleod, S. Lawton and A Kavanagh
    Manufacturing Drug Substance That Meets Formulation Needs Proc. AIChemE annual meeting at Salt Lake City, 8th Nov. 2010

    L. Griffiths, Z. Huang, S. Algar and G. Steele
    Controlled Particle Size Modification that Meets Formulation Needs
    Proc. 7th ECCE/19th Int. Congr. of Chem. and Proc. Eng., Prague 28th Aug.-1st Sept. 2010
  •  
  • 2009
  • S. Lawton, G. Steele, P. Shering, X.-W. Ni, L. Zhao and I. Laird
    Continuous Crystallisation of a Pharmaceutical Using a Continuous Oscillatory Baffled Crystalliser
    Org. Proc. Res. Dev. 13: 1357-1363 (2009)

    K. S. Howard, Z. K. Nagy B. Saha, A. L. Robertson and G. Steele
    A Process Analytical Technology Based Investigation of the Polymorphic Transformations During the Antisolvent Crystallization of Sodium Benzoate from IPA/Water Mixtures
    Cryst. Growth Des. 9: 3964-3975 (2009)

    K. S. Howard, Z. K. Nagy, B. Saha, A. L. Robertson and G. Steele
    Combined PAT-Solid State Analytical Approach for the Detection and Study of Sodium Benzoate Hydrate
    Org. Proc. Res. Dev. 13: 943-950 (2009)

    G. Steele and T. K. Austin
    Preformulation Predictions from Small Amounts of Compound as an Aid to Candidate Drug Selection
    In Drugs and the Pharmaceutical Sciences Vol. 199, Pharmaceutical Preformulation and Formulation: A Practical Guide from Candidate Drug Selection to Commercial Dosage Form. 2nd Edition. Ed. M Gibson Chapter 3, pp17-128, Informa Healthcare, New York (2009)

    G. Steele
    Preformulation as an Aid to Product Design in Early Drug Development
    In Drugs and the Pharmaceutical Sciences Vol.199, Pharmaceutical Preformulation and Formulation: A Practical Guide from Candidate Drug Selection to Commercial Dosage Form. 2nd Edition. Ed. M Gibson Chapter 6, pp188-246, Informa Healthcare, New York (2009)

    G. Steele
    Pharmaceutical Crystallisation Processes and Their Impact on Particle Properties
    Keynote lecture, 10th IChemE Particle Technology Forum, University of Birmingham, 1-2nd July 2009

    K. S. Howard, Z. K. Nagy, B. Saha, A. L. Robertson and G. Steele
    Application of PAT Tools for Monitoring the pH- Controlled Crystallisation of Zwitterionic Compounds
    In Proc 16th Int. Workshop on Ind. Cryst. (BIWIC 2009), Lappeenranata, Finland 9-11th Sept. 2009

    G. Steele
    Some In-Line Studies of Oiling Out and Crystallisation of Pharmaceuticals
    Invited seminar, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Loughborough University, 10th Nov. 2009
  •  
  • 2008
  • K. S. Howard, Z. K. Nagy, B. Saha, A. L. Robertson and G. Steele
    Combined PAT-Solid State Analytical Approach for the Detection and Study of Sodium Benzoate Hydrate
    Proc. 17th Int Symp on Industrial Crystallisation (ISIC) pp1475-1482, Maastrict 14-17th Sept. 2008

    K. S. Howard, Z. K. Nagy, B. Saha, A. L. Robertson and G. Steele
    A Process Analytical Technology Based Investigation of the Batch Crystallization of Sodium Benzoate and p-Aminobenzoic Acid
    Proc of the 15th Int. Symp. and Ind. Workshop on Industrial Crystallisation (BIWIC) pp234-242, University of Magdeburg (eds H. Lorentz and H. Kaemmeer) 10-12th Sept. 2008
  •  
  • 2007
  • Z. K. Nagy, A. L. Gillon, G. Steele and C. D. Rielly
    Using Process Analytical Technology for In Situ Monitoring of the Polymorphic Transformation of Organic Compounds
    Proceedings of the 8th Int. IFAC Symposium on Dynamics & Control of Proc. Syst., pp 133-138, Cancun, Mexico, 6-8th Jun.2007

    G. Steele
    In-Line Studies of Crystallisation
    Keynote lecture Advances in Proc. Analytics and Control Tech. (APACT) 2007 Conference, Edinburgh, 2-4th May 2007

    K. S. Howard, Z. K., Nagy, B. Saha, A. L. Robertson and G. Steele.
    A Process Analytical Technology Based Investigation of the Batch Crystallization of Sodium Benzoate and p-Aminobenzoic Acid.
    Proceedings of the 15th International Symposium on Industrial Workshop on Industrial Crystallization (BIWIC), pp 234-242, University of Magdeburg (Eds H. Lorentz and H. Kaemmerer). 10-12th Sept. 2007 (ISBN 978-3-8322-7505-1)

    G. Steele
    In-Line Studies of Pharmaceutical Crystallisation Invited lecture, Scientific Update Conference on PAT in Organic Process R&D, Clearwater, Florida, 26-27th Nov. 2007

    G. Steele
    From Molecules to a Medicine: The Viozan Story
    Invited lecture, Scientific Update Conference on Polymorphism and Crystallisation, Chemical Development Issues, Clearwater, Florida, 28-29th Nov. 2007
  •  
  • 2006
  • A. Juppo and G. Steele
    Preparation of Crystalline N, N'-Disubstituted Oxabispidines and Their Use as Cardiovascular Agents
    PCT Int. Appl. WO 2006/137772 A1 (2006)

    A.M.L. Gillon, G. Steele, Z. K. Nagy, N. Makwana and C. D. Reilly
    PAT Investigations into the Crystallization of Caffeine
    Proceedings of the 13th BIWIC, Sept 13-15 2006, Delft University, (Eds Jansens P. J., ter Horst J. H., Jiang S), pp 35-42. IOS Press BV, Amsterdam, The Netherlands (2006) (ISBN 1-58603-658-0).

    G. Steele, S. Black and M. Bohlin
    The Use of Process Analytical Technologies (PAT) for the Development, Understanding and Control of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) Crystallisation
    Proc. CGOM 7, (Abstract P-20) University of Rouen, 26-31st Aug. 2006

    H. Baker, R. J. Davey, A. Miller, S. N. Black and G. Steele
    Polyamorphs of Indomethacin – Can Polymorphism in Crystals be Applied to the Amorphous Phase?
    Proc. CGOM 7, (Abstract P-29), University of Rouen, 26-31st Aug. 2006

    R. Bell and G. Steele
    Identification of Key Parameters for Pures Process Development by Experimental Design: A Case Study
    Proc. BACG Annual Symp., Heriot-Watt University Edinburgh 10-12th Sept. 2006

    A. L. Gillon, G. Steele, Z. K. Nagy, N. Makwana and C. D. Rielly
    Investigations into the Crystallisation of Caffeine
    Proc. BACG Annual Symp., Heriot-Watt University Edinburgh 10-12th Sept. 2006

    G. Steele
    In-Line Studies of the Oiling Out and Crystallisation of Pharmaceutical Compounds Presented to the 2nd International Conference on Process Analytical Technology (PAT) in Organic Process R&D, Milan, Italy, 20-23rd June 2006

    G. Steele
    Process Engineering Aspects of Crystallisation Development and Scale-Up
    Invited presentation at the A* STAR Institute of Chemical and Engineering Sciences (ICES), Jurong Island, Singapore, 11th Oct. 2006

    G. Steele
    Preformulation - Candidate Drug Selection, Characterisation and Implications for Product Design
    Invited lecture at the Exploiting Emerging Formulation Sciences & Technologies for Pharmaceutical & Fine Chemicals Manufacturing Symposium. Biopolis, Singapore, 12th Oct. 2006

    G. Steele
    From Molecules to a Medicine - The Viozan Story
    Invited lecture at the Unilever Centre for Molecular Informatics, Dept. of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Nov. 28th 2006
  •  
  • 2005
  • G. R. Lewis, G. Steele, L. McBride, A. J. Florence, A. R. Kennedy, N. Shankland, W. I. F. David, K. Shankland, and S. J. Teat
    Hydrophobic vs. Hydrophilic: Ionic Competition in Remacemide Salt Structures
    Cryst. Growth Des. 5: 427-438 (2005)

    A. J. Florence, N. Shankland, K. Shankland, W. I. F. David, E. Pidcock, X. Xu, A. Johnston, A. R. Kennedy, P. J. Cox, J. S. O. Evans, G. Steele, S. Cosgrove and C. S. Frampton
    Solving Molecular Crystal Structures from Laboratory X-ray Powder Diffraction Data: the State of the Art and Challenges
    J. Appl. Crystallogr. 38: 249-259 (2005)

    G. Steele
    The Use of ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy for Supersaturation Measurement and Control in Crystallisation Studies
    Paper presented to the Infrared & Raman Discussion Group Meeting, University of Bradford, 28th April 2005

    H. Else, R. Evans, P. Morgan, P. O'Keefe, M. Perry, P. Plumb, M. Purdie, B. Springthorpe and G. Steele
    Preparation of Pharmaceutical Salts of [1, 4] – Bipiperidine
    PCT Int. Appl. WO 2005/044268 A1 (2005)

    S. D. Cosgrove, G. Steele, A. P. Plumb, T. K. Austin, E. Ferrari and K. J. Roberts
    Understanding the Polymorphic Behaviour of Sibenadit Hydrochloride Through Detailed Studies Integrating Structural and Dynamical Assessment
    J. Pharm. Sci. 94: 2403-2415 (2005)

    D. Horner, G. Steele, R. Amewu, A. Cole and J. Perkins
    Classical Resolution: From Salt Screening to Scale Up
    Proc. 7th World Congress of Chemical Engineering, Glasgow, Paper 050-002, 82640/1-82640/9, 10-14th July 2005. (CD-ROM of Proceedings)

    E. Deneau and G. Steele
    An In-Line Study of Oiling Out and Crystallization
    Org. Proc. Res. Dev. 9: 943-950 (2005)
  •  
  • 2004
  • A. Johnston, A. J. Florence, K. Shankland, A. J. Markvardsen, N. Shankland, G. Steele and S. D. Cosgrove
    Powder Study of N-[2-(4-hydroxy-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1,3-benzothiazol-7-yl)ethyl]-3-[2-(2-napthalene-1-ylethoxy)ethylsulphonyl]propylaminium benzoate
    Acta Cryst. E60: o1751-o1753 (2004)

    K. Shankland, A. J. Florence, N. Shankland, W. I. F. David, A. Johnston, A.J. Markvardsen, G. Steele and S. D. Cosgrove
    Crystal Structure Determination: Pushing Back the Boundaries with Laboratory XRPD and Global Optimisation
    Am. Pharm. Rev. 7: 80-86 (2004)

    E. W. Y. Tan, R. G. Holdich, R. J. Wakeman and G. Steele
    Filtration on a Horizontal Filter Leaf with Sedimentation
    Proc. 9th World Filtration Congress, New Orleans, LA, United States, 18-24th Apr., 2004, American Filtration and Separations Society, Houston, Texas, pp. 2118-2128. (2004) (CD-ROM of Proceedings)

    E. Deneau and G. Steele
    An in situ Investigation into the Oiling Out of a Pharmaceutical Compound
    Proc. BACG annual meeting ‘Crystallisation and Separation of Pharmaceuticals and Organic Fine Chemicals’, University of Leeds, 6-8th September 2004


    E. W. Y. Tan, R. G. Holdich, R. J. Wakeman and G. Steele
    Crystal Shape Effects on the Recovery of Indomethacin Polymorphs by Means of Filtration
    Proc. BACG annual meeting ‘Crystallisation and Separation of Pharmaceuticals and Organic Fine Chemicals’, University of Leeds, 6-8th Sept. 2004
  •  
  • 2003
  • G. Steele, A. Somani and J. G. P. Lim
    Propellant Compositions of a Particulate Medicament that are Free of Solvents
    United States Patent 6,582,677 B1 (2003)

    G. Steele, S. D. Cosgrove, T. K. Austin, A. P. Plumb, B. Stensland, E. Ferrari, K. J. Roberts
    The Solid-State Characterisation of the Polymorphs of Sibenadet Hydrochloride
    (4-hydroxy-7{2[-(3-phenylethyloxy-propane-1-sulphonyl)-ethylamino]-ethyl}-3H-benzothiazol-2-one hydrochloride)
    Presented to the 6th International Workshop on the Crystal Growth of Organic Materials (CGOM 6), University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, 17-21st Aug. 2003 (Abstract CL-9).


    R. J. Berriman, S. C. Eyley, J.- P. Sherlock, G. Steele
    The Use of Experimental Design in Crystallisation and Isolation Studies of Adipic Acid
    In Proceedings of the 10th Breman International Workshop on Industrial Crystallization (BIWIC), Ed., G. Coquerel, pp 338-347. 2003 Campus Copie, Mont Saint-Aignan, Rouen, France. (ISBN 3-86130-198-9).

    A. Docherty, A. J. Florence, G. Steele, S. D. Cosgrove, W. I .F. David, K. Shankland, N. Shankland and A. R. Kennnedy
    Accuracy in Structure Determination from Powder Diffraction Data by Simulated Annealing
    21st European Crystallographic Meeting, Durban, 24-29th Aug. 2003
  •  
  • 2002
  • K. Shankland, L. McBride, W. I. F. David, N. Shankland and G. Steele
    Molecular, Crystallographic and Algorithmic Factors in Structure Determination from Powder Diffraction by Simulated Annealing
    J. Applied Crystallogr. 35: 443-454 (2002)

    G. Steele
    The Modern Solid-State Analysis Laboratory
    Keynote paper presented to the 3rd International Workshop on the Physical Characterization of Pharmaceutical Solids, Oxford, 10-14th June 2002

    D. O’Sullivan, G. Steele and T. K. Austin
    Investigations into the Amorphous and Crystalline Forms of a Development Compound
    In Amorphous Food and Pharmaceutical Systems, pp 220-230, Ed. Levine H., Royal Society of Chemistry, Special Publication No. 281, Cambridge
    (2002) (ISBN 0-85404-866-9)


    C. Bland and G. Steele
    Pharmaceutical Compositions Containing a Nucleotide Analogue Suitable for Freeze Drying
    European Patent EP 1007094 B1 (2002)
  •  
  • 2001
  • G. Steele
    Preformulation Predictions from Small Amounts of Compound as an Aid to Candidate Drug Selection
    in Pharmaceutical Preformulation and Formulation: A Practical Guide from Candidate Drug Selection to Commercial Dosage Form. Ed. Gibson M., Chapter 3, pp 21-95, (2001) IHS Health Group, Englewood CO. (ISBN 1-57491-120-1)

    G. Steele
    Preformulation as an Aid to Product Design in Early Drug Development in Pharmaceutical Preformulation and Formulation: A Practical Guide from Candidate Drug Selection to Commercial Dosage Form.  Ed. Gibson M., Chapter 6, pp 175-237 (2001) IHS Health Group, Englewood CO. (ISBN 1-57491-120-1)

  •  
  • 2000
  • T. H. Plumridge, G. Steele and R. D. Waigh
    Geometry Based Simulation of the Hydration of Small Molecules
    Phys. Chem. Comm. 3: N1-N14, pp U36-U41 (2000)
    http://www.rsc.org/ej/qu/2000/B003723k/index.htm. (electronic paper)


    C. Bland and G. Steele
    Pharmaceutical Compositions for Freeze Drying
    United States Patent 6,114,313 B1 (2000)

    T. H. Plumridge, G. Steele and R. D. Waigh
    A Computer Simulation of the Hydration of Ions and Small Molecules
    J. Pharm. Pharmacol. (Suppl.) 52: 111 (2000) BPC
  •  
  • 1999
  • G. Steele, D. O’Sullivan, J. K. Robinson and T. K. Austin
    The Polymorphism of an Inhalation Compound
    Paper presented to the Industrial Crystallography Forum of British Crystallographic Association (BCA), Coventry (1999)

    L. McBride, K. Shankland, W. I. F. David and G. Steele
    Crystal Structures of Remacemide Base, Nitrate and Acetate from X-ray Powder Diffraction Data
    J. Pharm. Pharmacol. (Suppl.) 51: 345 (1999) BPC, Cardiff

    T. H. Plumridge, G. Steele and R. D. Waigh
    Hydrogen Bond Geometries in Ices and Clathrate Hydrates
    J. Pharm. Pharmacol. (Suppl.) 51: 60 (1999) BPC, Cardiff

    G. Steele, T. K. Austin, J. K. Robinson, D. O’Sullivan, S. C. Eyley, G. Gunn and P. Plumb
    The Solid-State Characterisation of AR-C69457AA – A Novel D2/2 Agonist
    Proc. of the 14th International Conference on the Chemistry of the Organic Solid-State (ICOSS), University of Cambridge (1999)
  •  
  • 1998
  • M. C. Westwood, G. Steele and M. Aulton  
    Relationship Between Solvent Solubility Parameter and the Polymorphic Form of Cimetidine Produced in Crystallisation Studies
    British Association for Crystal Growth (BACG) Meeting, Wrexham (1998)

    T. H. Plumridge, R. D. Waigh and G. Steele
    Predicting Formation of Hydrate Inclusion Compounds: Furan Clathrate Hydrate
    J. Pharm. Pharmcol. (Suppl.) 50: 239 (1998) BPC, Eastbourne.
  •  
  • 1992
  • G. Steele
    Methods for the Detection of Polymorphism
    Presented to The Royal Society of Chemistry, Analytical Division/ Royal Pharmaceutical Society, Joint Pharmaceutical Analysis Group, London 12th Dec. 1991 Pharm. J., 298 (1992)

    B. P. S. Chawla and G. Steele
    Pharmaceutical Solution Containing Salbutamol and Cromoglycic Acid
    European Patent Specification 0 370 632 B1 (1992)
  •  
  • 1990
  • E. J. French, C. W. Pouton and G. Steele
    Fluidisation of Lipid Bilayers by Non-Ionic Surfactants: Structure - Activity Studies Using a Fluorescent Probe
    in Prediction of Percutaneous Penetration: Methods, Measurement and Modelling. Eds., Scott R. C. et al., pp 308-315, (1990) IBC Technical Services Ltd., London (ISBN 1-85271-117-5).

    G. Steele
    An Observation of Polymorphism by Pentamidine Isethionate
    J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 42: 121-122 (1990)
  •  
  • 1989
  • E. J. French, C. W. Pouton and G. Steele
    Fluidisation of Lipid Bilayers by Pure Non-Ionic Surfactants: A Study Using Fluorescence Polarisation Spectroscopy
    J. Pharm. Pharmacol. (Suppl.) 41: 80P (1989) BPC, Keele.
  •  
  • 1988
  • E. J. French, C. W. Pouton and G. Steele
    Fluidisation of Disteorylphosphitdylcholine Bilayers by Non-Ionic Surfactants of Single Ethoxy Chain Length
    J. Pharm. Pharmacol. (Suppl.) 40: 38P (1988) BPC, Aberdeen.
  •  
  • 1985
  • G. Steele and T. L. Whateley
    Particle Size and Surface Charge Studies on a Tin Colloid Liver Scanning Agent
    Eur. J. Nucl. Med. 10: 353-358 (1985)
  •  
  • 1984
  • G. Steele and T. L. Whateley
    The Adsorption of Proteins and Macromolecules on Polystyrene Latex Particles and their Effect on Phagocytosis
    J. Pharm. Pharmacol. (Suppl.) 36: 23P (1984) BPC, Southampton

    G. Steele, T. L. Whateley, G. A. Smail and J. Urwin
    Particle Size Stability of Intralipid and Total Parenteral Nutrition Mixtures
    J. Clin. Hosp. Pharm. 9: 113-126 (1984)

    T. L. Whateley and G. Steele
    The Adsorption of Plasma Proteins and Poly-L-Lysine on Polystyrene Latex Particles and their Effect on Phagocytosis
    in Microspheres and Drug Therapy, Pharmaceutical, Immunological and Medical Aspects, Eds Davis, Illum et al., Ch. 5, pp73-74 (1984) Elseiver/North  Holland. (ISBN 0-444-80577-X)
  •  
  • 1982
  • T. L. Whateley and G. Steele
    Particle Size Stability and Surface Charge of a Tin Colloid Liver Scanning Radiopharmaceutical
    J. Pharm. Pharmacol. (Suppl.) 34: 62P (1982) BPC, Edinburgh.
  •  
  • 1980
  • T. L. Whateley, C. L. Marshall and G. Steele
    Particle Size of Colloidal Radiopharmaceutical Liver Scanning Agents by Photon Correlation Spectroscopy J. Pharm. Pharmacol. (Suppl.) 32: 88P (1980) British Pharmaceutical Conference (BPC), Newcastle
  •